January / February 2015

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CloudScape Newsletter - January/February 2015

In This Issue:


Welcome to our first issues of CloudScape for 2015. This is a big transition year for us as we have joined together with IEEE Cloud Computing to create a powerhouse of volunteer opportunities for our members. We call our volunteers cloudsters and we meet once a month via Skype. At each meeting, we have a featured speaker to discuss something about cloud computing. The session is recorded and posted at a podcast on our website (See http://cloudcomputing.ieee.org/innovations/cs-cloud-computing-stc and scroll down for our current offerings).

We need volunteers in the following areas:
  • Web site editors: Work on updating content on a particular area of the IEEE Cloud Computing web site.
  • Social media poster: Post items of interest on social media sites (our Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn accounts)
  • Blog writer: Write a blog about cloud computing.
  • Podcaster: Create a podcast related to cloud computing.
All of these take just an hour or two a week or a month to do - and this is a great way to meet other people in the vast world of cloud computing. From my work with volunteers I have met people from the hardware level that work on the large buildings that actually host the hardware where cloud computing runs to people that work on the newest concepts in cloud computing, such as fog computing - and everyone and everything in between. I have learned so much from these people and made friends all around the world. I hope you will consider joining our team.
If you are interested email Chris Miyachi at cmiyachi@alum.mit.edu. Please put in the title "Cloudster Volunteer".


In the News

Please see the following new calls for papers:
  • IEEE International Conference on Cloud Engineering (IC2E) Call for Papers - Due Feb. 15, 2015.
    See more at: Call For Papers IC2E.
  • 2015 International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Call for Papers (CLOUDCOM Asia) - Due Feb. 18, 2015.
    See more at: Call For Papers CloudCom Asia.


Message from the Cloud-Link Editors

This issue of Cloud-Link is about intercloud and multicloud. As many clouds are available or being set up, there has been considerable interest in studying how clouds can be interconnected effectively to work collaboratively. Eight articles have been selected to cover different aspects of this interesting topic.

Security is particularly important in a multicloud environment. Both the articles: “Security and Privacy-Enhancing Multicloud Architectures” and “Collaboration in Multicloud Computing Environments: Framework and Security Issues” study this important topic. Cloud bursting is one of the useful intercloud/multicloud applications. The articles “Extending MapReduce across Clouds with BStream” and “Optimizing Ordered Throughput Using Autonomic Cloud Bursting Schedulers” present a cloud bursting framework for MapReduce and studies cloud bursting schedulers, respectively. The article “Inter-cloud Operations via NGSON” investigates intercloud from a networking and operational perspective. Intercloud/multicloud greatly facilitates the sharing of computing resources. The article “Efficient Resource Mapping Framework over Networked Clouds via Iterated Local Search-Based Request Partitioning” investigates resource mapping for an intercloud environment and the article “Multicloud Deployment of Computing Clusters for Loosely Coupled MTC Applications” studies the use of intercloud resources to support many-task computing applications. Last but not least, the article “A Truthful Dynamic Workflow Scheduling Mechanism for Commercial Multicloud Environments” proposes a dynamic scheduling method for multicloud environments with the objective of minimizing the completion time and monetary cost.

We hope that this issue of Cloud-Link can provide you with useful references to explore this important and interesting topic further. Articles have been selected based on various considerations (e.g., variety, relevancy, anticipated readers' interests) and unavoidably there are many other useful and insightful articles that have not been included. You are also encouraged to search through IEEE Xplore and other databases for further reading.

We are looking for topics for the upcoming issues. If you have any suggestions, please email them to hcbchan@ieee.org


Henry Chan, Victor Leung, Jens Jensen, and Tomasz Wiktorski

Visit Cloud-Link to read more.


Cloud-Link Articles

Extending MapReduce across Clouds with BStream

Kailasam, S.; Dhawalia, P.; Balaji, S.J.; Iyer, G.; Dharanipragada, J.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing, July-September 2014

Today, batch processing frameworks like Hadoop MapReduce are difficult to scale to multiple clouds due to latencies involved in inter-cloud data transfer and synchronization overheads during shuffle-phase. This inhibits the MapReduce framework from guaranteeing performance at variable load surges without over-provisioning in the internal cloud (IC). We propose BStream, a cloud bursting framework for MapReduce that couples stream-processing in the external cloud (EC) with Hadoop in the internal cloud (IC). Stream processing in EC enables pipelined uploading, processing and downloading of data to minimize network latencies. We use this framework to meet job deadlines. BStream uses an analytical model to minimize the usage of EC. We propose different checkpointing strategies that overlap output transfer with input transfer/processing and simultaneously reduce the computation involved in merging the results from EC and IC. Checkpointing further reduces job completion time. We experimentally compare BStream with other related works and illustrate performance benefits due to stream processing and checkpointing strategies in EC. Lastly, we characterize the operational regime of BStream.

Visit Cloud-Link to read more.

Optimizing Ordered Throughput Using Autonomic Cloud Bursting Schedulers

Kailasam, S.; Gnanasambandam, N.; Dharanipragada, J.; Sharma, N.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, November 2013

Optimizing ordered throughput not only improves the system efficiency butalso makes cloud bursting transparent to the user. This is critical from the perspective of user fairness in customer-facing systems, correctness in stream processing systems, and so on. In this paper, we consider optimizing ordered throughput for near real-time, data-intensive, independent computations using cloud bursting. Intercloud computation of data-intensive applications is a challenge due to large data transfer requirements, low intercloud bandwidth, and best-effort traffic on the Internet. The system model we consider is comprised of two processing stages. The first stage uses cloud bursting opportunistically for parallel processing, while the second stage (sequential) expects the output of the first stage to be in the same order as the arrival sequence. We propose three scheduling heuristics as part of an autonomic cloud bursting approach that adapt to changing workload characteristics, variation in bandwidth, and available resources to optimize ordered throughput. We also characterize the operational regimes for cloud bursting as stabilization mode versus acceleration mode, depending on the workload characteristics like the size of data to be transferred for a given compute load. The operational regime characterization helps in deciding how many instances can be optimally utilized in the external cloud.

Visit Cloud-Link to read more.

Security and Privacy-Enhancing Multicloud Architectures

Bohli, J.-M.; Gruschka, N.; Jensen, M.; Iacono, L.L.; Marnau, N.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, July-August 2013

Security challenges are still among the biggest obstacles when considering the adoption of cloud services. This triggered a lot of research activities, resulting in a quantity of proposals targeting the various cloud security threats. Alongside with these security issues, the cloud paradigm comes with a new set of unique features, which open the path toward novel security approaches, techniques, and architectures. This paper provides a survey on the achievable security merits by making use of multiple distinct clouds simultaneously. Various distinct architectures are introduced and discussed according to their security and privacy capabilities and prospects.

Visit Cloud-Link to read more.

A Truthful Dynamic Workflow Scheduling Mechanism for Commercial Multicloud Environments

Fard, H.M.; Prodan, R.; Fahringer, T.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, June 2013

The ultimate goal of cloud providers by providing resources is increasing their revenues. This goal leads to a selfish behavior that negatively affects the users of a commercial multicloud environment. In this paper, we introduce a pricing model and a truthful mechanism for scheduling single tasks considering two objectives: monetary cost and completion time. With respect to the social cost of the mechanism, i.e., minimizing the completion time and monetary cost, we extend the mechanism for dynamic scheduling of scientific workflows. We theoretically analyze the truthfulness and the efficiency of the mechanism and present extensive experimental results showing significant impact of the selfish behavior of the cloud providers on the efficiency of the whole system. The experiments conducted using real-world and synthetic workflow applications demonstrate that our solutions dominate in most cases the Pareto-optimal solutions estimated by two classical multiobjective evolutionary algorithms.

Visit Cloud-Link to read more.

Efficient Resource Mapping Framework over Networked Clouds via Iterated Local Search-Based Request Partitioning

Leivadeas, A.; Papagianni, C.; Papavassiliou, S.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, June 2013

The cloud represents a computing paradigm where shared configurable resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Adding intra- or intercloud communication resources to the resource mix leads to a networked cloud computing environment. Following the cloud infrastructure as a Service paradigm and in order to create a flexible management framework, it is of paramount importance to address efficiently the resource mapping problem within this context. To deal with the inherent complexity and scalability issue of the resource mapping problem across different administrative domains, in this paper a hierarchical framework is described. First, a novel request partitioning approach based on Iterated Local Search is introduced that facilitates the cost-efficient and online splitting of user requests among eligible cloud service providers (CPs) within a networked cloud environment. Following and capitalizing on the outcome of the request partitioning phase, the embedding phase-where the actual mapping of requested virtual to physical resources is performed can be realized through the use of a distributed intracloud resource mapping approach that allows for efficient and balanced allocation of cloud resources. Finally, a thorough evaluation of the proposed overall framework on a simulated networked cloud environment is provided and critically compared against an exact request partitioning solution as well as another common intradomain virtual resource embedding solution.

Visit Cloud-Link to read more.

Collaboration in Multicloud Computing Environments: Framework and Security Issues

Singhal, M.; Chandrasekhar, S.; Tingjian Ge; Sandhu, R.;Joon Ahn; Bertino, E.
Published in IEEE Computer, February 2013

A proposed proxy-based multicloud computing framework allows dynamic, on-the-fly collaborations and resource sharing among cloud-based services, addressing trust, policy, and privacy issues without preestablished collaboration agreements or standardized interfaces.

Visit Cloud-Link to read more.

Inter-Cloud Operations via NGSON

Chen Shan; Chang Heng; Zou Xianjun
Published in IEEE Communications, January 2012

The application of clouds has become more and more prevalent over recent years. The operation among many different clouds faces a significant challenge due to the interface diversity and architecture differences. In this article, we address this interoperability problem by providing a uniform authentication, routing, delivery, composition and registration mechanism. Via NGSON, the adaptation, dynamic message routing, policy control, cloud transfer, and cloud composition operation can be provided for intercloud operations. This article also presents case studies of NGSON with capability to support inter-cloud operations.

Visit Cloud-Link to read more.

Multicloud Deployment of Computing Clusters for Loosely Coupled MTC Applications

Moreno-Vozmediano, R.; Montero, R.S.; Llorente, I.M.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, June 2011

Cloud computing is gaining acceptance in many IT organizations, as an elastic, flexible, and variable-cost way to deploy their service platforms using outsourced resources. Unlike traditional utilities where a single provider scheme is a common practice, the ubiquitous access to cloud resources easily enables the simultaneous use of different clouds. In this paper, we explore this scenario to deploy a computing cluster on the top of a multicloud infrastructure, for solving loosely coupled Many-Task Computing (MTC) applications. In this way, the cluster nodes can be provisioned with resources from different clouds to improve the cost effectiveness of the deployment, or to implement high-availability strategies. We prove the viability of this kind of solutions by evaluating the scalability, performance, and cost of different configurations of a Sun Grid Engine cluster, deployed on a multicloud infrastructure spanning a local data center and three different cloud sites: Amazon EC2 Europe, Amazon EC2 US, and ElasticHosts. Although the testbed deployed in this work is limited to a reduced number of computing resources (due to hardware and budget limitations), we have complemented our analysis with a simulated infrastructure model, which includes a larger number of resources, and runs larger problem sizes. Data obtained by simulation show that performance and cost results can be extrapolated to large-scale problems and cluster infrastructures.

Visit Cloud-Link to read more.


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